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User English Manual for Kiev-4, Kiev-4a Cameras

CAMERA  "KIEV"
 

 

Fig. 1. "Kiev-4a" camera

Fig. 2. "Kiev-4" camera



DESIGNATION
 

The "Kiev" ("Киев") camera is a small, first-grade camera designed for photo-amateurs and photo-specialists. The camera can also be used in scientific and technical photography.
The "Kiev" camera is manufactured in two models.
"Kiev-4" with photoelectric exposure meter (Fig 2) and "Kiev-4A" without exposure meter (Fig. 1).

TECHNICAL DATA
 

Size of negative picture: 24X36 mm. 36 pictures are ensured when camera is loaded with a 1.6 m film.
Shutter: split type with hinged metal curtains.
Shutter speeds: manual - "B" ("long" and "short" periods) and automatic - 1/2; 1/5; 1/10; 1/25; 1/50; 1/125; 1/250; 1/500;1/1250 sec.
The shutter winding mechanism is interlocked with the film winder thus ensuring double exposure prevention.
Coated lens: "Юпитер-8М" ("Jupiter") f = 5 cm; relative aperture: 1 : 2.
Lens is focused by an optical rangefinder (from 0.9 m to infinity).
Sighting: with the aid of an optical view finder.
The camera is fitted with single-window coupled rangefinder-viewfinder.
The camera is provided with a self-timer. The self-timer running time, before the shutter snaps: from 9 to 15 sec for all speeds.
The back of the camera is removable.
The "Kiev-4A" is provided with a film reminder.
The "Kiev-4" model has a small, extra-sensitive photoelectric exposure meter which operates at brightness from 8 to 31800 nit.
Range of determined exposures: from 8 to 1/1250 sec-
Light flux acceptance angle: 65-70.
Fig. 3. Camera design:
1- body; 2 - depth-of-field scale; 3 - distance scale; 4 - diaphragm ring; 5 - lens; 6 - lens fixing spring; 7 - self-timer lever; 8 - self-timer button; 9 - range finder window; 10 - we-ring for neck strap; 11 - shutter speed scale; 12 - shutter winding knob; 13 - release button; 14-picture counter; 15 - lever for fixing lens in the position "infinity"; 16 - lens focusing wheel; 17 - shoe for various attachments; 18 - view-finder-rangefinder window; 19 - film reminder: 20 - film re-. winding knob; 21 - synchronizer socket
 

 Fig. 4. Camera bottom view:
1 - tripod bush; 2 - shutter mechanism disengaging button; 3 - latch-swivel of camera back


 

Overall dimensions, mm
"Kiev-4" model: 150X90X74
"Kiev-4A" model: 150X83X74
Weight (including the case), kg
'Kiev-4" model:1.030
'Kiev-4A" model: 0.965
 


 

Fig. 5. Camera rear view:
1- viewfinder and rangefinder eyepiece;
2 - backpiece


 

 

HANDLING

THE CAMERA IN LOADING
 

PREPARING
THE CAMERA FOR LOADING

Fig. 6. Opening locks on camera back

Free the camera by unbuttoning the cases and unwinding the screw out of the tripod hole that is found at the bottom of the case.
Lift the two latch-swivels 3 (Fig. 4) and turn them half-way in the direction shown in Fig. 6.
Shift camera backpiece 2 (Fig. 5) slightly downwards and remove it. Here camera should be held with its upper cover downwards so as to prevent the magazine and take-spool from falling out (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7. Removing camera backpiece

LOADING AND ASSEMBLING THE MAGAZINE

 

The magazine consists of two cylinders, one running into the other, and a spool.
The magazine should be loaded in complete darkness.
Before loading the magazine is opened by pressing the projecting button found at the bottom of the magazine.
 

Fig. 8. Film loading diagram

Then revolve the inner cylinder clockwise until the cylinder slits coincide. Now the inner cylinder can be taken out from the outer and the spool can be removed from the inner cylinder (Fig. 9).
The end of the film should be properly cut and firmly fixed in the spool slits as shown in Fig. 8. Holding the film by its edges, so as not to touch the emulsion, tightly wind it by revolving the spool counterclockwise. Wind the film with the emulsion side inward.
If the film is properly wound it will not be protruding out of spool flanges.
   Fig. 9. Opening magazine
   Fig. 10. Placing filmspool into inner cylinder
   Fig. 11. Closing magazine

 

When the film is wound, the loosely wound turns should not be tightened as this may lead to damaging the film emulsion. Then the spool with its film Is set into the inner cylinder, its "head" being forward and the outer cylinder is placed over it and pushed as far as it will go (Fig. 10). Leave about 5 cm of the film end outside. The inner cylinder is then turned half-way counterclockwise until it locks (Fig. 11). In this position the inscription "Закрыть" ("Closed") will appear in the middle of the slit.


LOADING THE CAMERA
 

The camera can be loaded in daylight (preferably in a badly-lighted place). The following procedure should be observed when loading the camera:
1. Fasten the end of the film in the take-up spool (Fig. 8).
2. Place the magazine in the left-hand recess and the take-up spool in the right-hand recess of the camera body so that the film perforations engage the sprocket teeth that will carry the film (Fig. 12).
When the film magazine is placed in the camera, it should accurately fit into the magazine slot, for if the magazine does not properly "sit" it may become damaged.
The emulsion side of the film should face the lens.
Note. An ordinary "Kiev" camera magazine can be used as a take-up spool thus eliminating the need for rewinding the film.
3. Close the camera (Fig. 14) by putting its back against the body and by passing its edges into the body slots. Push the back of the camera upwards as far as it will go, holding the film edge with the left-hand thumb, turn the latch-swivels around and down. As soon as the lock is turned the film magazine opens.
in the process of camera loading the film end becomes exposed. In order to move the non-exposed film towards the picture aperture wind and release the shutter twice by pressing the release button each time.
If the camera is properly loaded then while turning the winding knob the rewind knob will also turn.

 

   Fig. 12. Camera loaded with magazine and spool
 

   Fig. 13. Camera loaded with two magazines

   Fig. 14. Closing camera back



 

Fig. 15. Setting counter at "0"

Fig. 16. Shutter speed setting


 

If film is loosely wound on the magazine spool the rewind knob will remain stationary when first pictures are shot.
4. Set "0" mark of the picture counter against the index on the spool by rotating the protruded part of the disk as shown in Fig. 15.
5. Set the film reminder index 19 by turning the button of scale so as to reveal the necessary film speed index in
rewinding head 20 (Fig. 3). Index 19 is marked with numbers that correspond to black-and-white film speed in ГОСТ (USSR State Standard) units and with symbols for color film.
The camera can also be loaded with a film wound about an ordinary spool covered with a black blanket (when the magazine is not used).
In this case the loading procedure is as follows:
the end of the leader (not the film) is fixed in the take-up spool and picture counter disk is set at division 27 (not "0") against which a red dot is found. To perform film feeding it is necessary to take nine "blank'' pictures until the "0" mark is set against the counter index.


PHOTOGRAPHING


 

The process of photographing consists of the following operations: setting the shutter; timing the exposure; focusing the lens; sighting; releasing the shutter.
The shutter is set by turning the winding knob clockwise as far as it will go.
Exposure time (Fig. 16) is set by lifting and turning the winding knob until the black dot, marked on it, coincides with the required shutter speed. Lower the winding knob in such a way as to enable it to fix itself in a proper position.
When the shutter is set, resetting the time exposure from shorter to longer exposures requires more effort than when resetting its speeds in the opposite direction.


It is recommended
 

when exposure times have to be reset from longer to shorter times (for example: from 1/50 to 1/125 sec) turn the winding knob in such a way that the black dot is found a little further than the actual time to be set and then with a clockwise turn of the knob to set and lower the head;
to set the exposure time after winding the shutter.

The diaphragm (Fig. 17) is set by turning ring 4 (Fig. 3) which is fixed when the index coincides with any chosen diaphragm number.
Focusing (Fig. 18) and setting the lens with the rangefinder is accomplished by turning wheel 16 (Fig. 3).
The wheel can be turned only after pressing lever /5 which fixes the lens at "infinity" position.


 

Fig. 17. Diaphragming of lens


 

Through the eyepiece of the rangefinder-viewfinder one sees in the middle of viewing field more light rectangle in which the viewed object has a split image.
Focusing with the aid of rangefinder consists in getting the two images to coincide (Fig. 19).
It is recommended to make the two images coincide in the centre of the smaller rectangle.
If the distance to the photographed object is known, focusing may be carried out with the aid of the distance scale by turning wheel 16 (Fig. 3) until the required value on distance scale 3 coincides with the scale dot-index.

 

Fig. 18. Focusing


 

Fig. 19. Matching images


 

The depth of field is determined by the distance scale depending on the distance to the object and selected diaphragm value.
Note. Taking pictures without the aid of the rangefinder is advisable only when small lens aperture is used so that any errors in determining the distance by eye are compensated by the lens focusing depth.
 

 

Fig. 20. Setting lens at 2.5 m

Fig. 21. Setting lens at 4 m

 

Example. If the f= 5 cm lens is focused at 4 m on a line with the film all the objects within 2.5-10 m (Fig. 20, 21) will have sharp images when diaphragm is set at 8.
Note. All distances to photographed objects should be counted from the plane of the film loaded in the camera.
Sighting is accomplished by looking through the eyepiece of the range and view finder during focusing.
The entire object to be photographed, seen through the eyepiece will be pictured on the negative.
The shutter is released by (Fig. 22) smoothly' pressing release button 13 (Fig. 3).
When photographing at exposures from 1/2 to 1/1250 sec, the shutter operates (opens and shuts) automatically. When photographing at the "B" exposure, the shutter remains open as long as the release button is pressed.
In order to obtain a time exposure, the release button may be fixed after being pressed by turning it counterclockwise as far as it will go (Fig. 23). The shutter closes after the finger is lifted from "the, button, the release button is returned to its position, and the red dots coincide. When photographing with exposures longer than 1/25 sec it is recommended to use the tripod or horizontal support and wire release in order to avoid "crabbing" the negative. The shutter can be released automatically with the aid of the automatic releaser. The automatic releaser is wound by turning lever 7 (Fig. 3) up to the stop (Fig. 24). In order to set the automatic releaser for action, button 8 (Fig. 3) should be shifted in the direction shown by the arrow. The automatic releaser running time before the shutter clicks is from 9 to 15 sec.
Duration of the "B" exposure, with the automatic releaser switched on, varies from 1 to 3 sec for various cameras (it is recommended to determine it with a stop-watch before using the camera).
 

Fig. 22. Releasing shutter

Fig. 23. Long exposure photographing


 

Fig. 24. Winding automatic re-leaser lever

Fig. 25. Film rewinding


 

Fig. 26. Exposure meter top view


UNLOADING THE CAMERA

 

In order to remove the exposed film frorn the camera it should first be rewound into the magazine. For this purpose the lens should be covered with the cap, the shutter mechanism disengaging button should be pressed down and the rewinding knob should be turned in the direction indicated by the arrow (Fig. 25).
Note. For "Kiev-4" camera the film rewinding knob should first be put forward.
After rewinding the camera's back should be removed, the magazine taken out and the end of the film released from the take-up spool.
Before closing the camera it is recommended to examine it and, if necessary, to clean it with the aid of a brush or a clean piece of cloth.


HOW TO USE THE EXPOSURE METER
 

The "Kiev-4" (Fig. 1) camera differs from the "Kiev-4A" (Fig. 2) in having a photoelectric exposure meter located in the upper part of the camera.
The exposure meter is used to determine exposure times.
The photoelectric exposure meter consists of the following units: photocell (located behind ribbed plate 1 (Fig. 27), galvanometer with pointer 1 and scale 2 (Fig. 26), calculator 3 (Fig. 27). The range of exposures is from 8 to 1/1250 sec.
The calculator has the following scales: exposure scale found on ring 5, film speed scale and diaphragm scale found on disk 4.
To determine the exposure time it is necessary:
to set the value of the film speed against index () on disk 3 by revolving disk 4.
If the camera is loaded with a film the speed of which is not marked on the scale, for example 45 units ГОСТ, then the central part of the section disk, found between 32 and 65 units ГОСТ marks, will be set against index ();
direct the camera towards the object to be photographed and open the cover of the photocell by pressing the button (Fig. 27);
set the galvanometer pointer at index I of galvanometer scale 2 by turning ring 5 of exposure scale (Fig. 26);
determine the required exposure time by using the exposure and diaphragm scales. The numbers in red on the exposure scale represent seconds while the numbers in black represent fractions of a second;
close the cover of photocell and turn the exposure scale ring clockwise as far as it will go.

 

Fig. 27. Opening photocell cover


 

 

Example of how to determine exposure times.
When camera is loaded with a film, the sensitivity of which is equal to 32 units ГОСТ, scale number 32 is set against index f on disk 3 revolving disk 4 (Fig. 26).
The galvanometer pointer is then set at index 4 by turning exposure scale ring 5. The exposure scale then takes a position whereby its number 125 is under number 2 of the diaphragm scale.
That means that with the diaphragm being 2 the exposure time should be set at 1/125 sec, with diaphragm 4 exposure time is at 1/25 sec, and so on or, vice versa, the diaphragm is determined by the chosen exposure.
Besides index + , numbers 2 and 4 are also found on galvanometer scale 2. These numbers are the multiplicator numbers which should be used when the galvanometer pointer does not reach index * after exposure scale has been fully turned counter-clockwise to a stop. In this case the obtained exposure time should be multiplied by the number against which the galvanometer pointer sets.
For example, the film speed is equal to 32 units ГОСТ and the galvanometer pointer has come to the line with number 2 after having turned the exposure ring of the calculator counterclockwise up to a stop. Under diaphragm number 8 is the 1/2 sec exposure mark. We obtain the required exposure time of 1 sec, by multiplying 1/2 sec by 2.
The photoelectric exposure meter is a complex precision instrument and requires special care when used.
The exposure meter should not be subjected to jolts and shaking.
The photocell cover should be opened only when determining the exposure time and the exposure meter should never be directed straight at the sun with its cover open.

 

Fig. 28. Connecting of flash lamps


PHOTOGRAPHING WITH FLASHLIGHT EQUIPMENT

 

The "Kiev-4" and the "Kiev-4A" are provided with synchronous contacts for connecting single action and pulse type multiple-action flash lamps with the plug matching the camera socket (Fig. 28).
Photographing with multiple action flash lamps should be carried out with 1/25 sec and longer exposures, for at these speeds the shutter completely opens the frame window.
When photographing with single action flashbulbs the shutter speed of 1/10 sec is most advisable.
Single action flashbulbs may -be used when light intensity does not cause any appearance of general fog on film (without the flash).
When the shutter is not in "ready" position, the contacts of the camera electric circuit are closed, but as soon as it is wound the contacts open. Therefore, when operating with flash lamps, the shutter should be wound immediately after taking a picture.
The flash lamps should be connected or disconnected and new lamps should be fitted (when using single action bulbs) only when the shutter is in "ready" position.

Photographing with flash lamps should be carried out in accordance with the instructions supplied with the flash lamp equipment.


SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OPERATING WITH INTERCHANGEABLE LENSES
 

The following additional lenses are manufactured for the "Kiev" cameras.
 

Description

Focal length, cm

Relative aperture Type
  "Jrupiter - 11"
  "Jrupiter - 9"
  "Jrupiter - 12"
  "Jrupiter - 3"

13.5
8.5
3.5
5.0

1 : 4
1 : 2
1 : 2.8
1 : 1.5

 tele-lens
 portrait
 wide-angle
 fast to light


 

Fig. 29. Removing lens


 

The interchangeable lenses are fitted in the camera barrel in place of the standard lens.
The basic operating lens "Jupiter-8M" as well as the interchangeable lens "Jupiter-3" are fitted on the bayonets of focusing mechanism inner ring, whereas all other lenses are fitted on the bayonets of the outer stationary ring, on which the depth-of-field scale is marked.
In order to remove the "Jupiter-8M" or the "Jupiter-3" lens it is necessary to press the spring which fastens the lens, making it drop below the red lug, and to remove the lens in the direction of the optical axis by turning it clockwise until the red marks on the lens and the camera's front cover coincide (Fig. 29).
The "Jupiter-8M" and "Jupiter-3" lenses are fitted in the reverse order.
Note. When a lens is fitted or removed, the camera and the lens distance scales should first be set in the .=0 (infinity) position.
The "Jupiter-11", "Jupiter-9" and "Jupiter-12" lenses are provided with their own distance, depth-of-field and diaphragm scales.
Before fitting the "Jupiter-9", "Jupiter-11" or "Jupiter-12" interchangeable lenses to the camera it is necessary to take off the rear cap of the lens, then place it on the bayonet ring of the barrel (Fig. 31) setting the red dot on the lens ring against the red dot on the camera front cover and turn the lens counterclockwise until it locks.
The lens is correctly fitted if disk 16 (Fig. 3) rotates when the lens distance ring is turned. The additional lenses are removed in the reverse order.
When photographing with the interchangeable lenses (Fig. 31) the sighting should be carried out with the aid of a multi-purpose or special viewfinder, which is mounted on frame 17 (see Fig. 3). Focusing is accomplished with the aid of a camera rangefinder but in order to reduce the load on the camera mechanism, the lens distance ring should be turned instead of disk 16.

 

Fig. 30. Setting up f= 13.5 cm lens

Fig. 31. Photographing with f= 13.5 cm lens


 

CARE

The camera should be kept in the leather case in a dry place and protected from dust and moisture.
The camera should be protected from jerks or impacts (especially "Kiev-4") as this may damage the mechanism particularly the exposure meter.
When the camera is used at temperatures below- 10 Ñ care should be taken not to have it long in the open air; keep it warm under the coat and take it out only when taking pictures.
The lens should be protected from dirt so that the necessity of cleaning them should not arise often, as during the cleaning the antireflection coating on the lenses may be damaged.
When brought into a warm room from the cold do not open the camera immediately to prevent it from becoming misty. It should be left in the carrying case for some time in order to adapt itself to the warmer temperature.
No extra force should be applied in handling the camera. In case defects or damage are discovered, the camera should be adjusted or repaired by skilled specialists only.


 

 
 

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