|The "Kiev" ("Киев")
camera is a small, first-grade camera designed for
photo-amateurs and photo-specialists. The camera can also be
used in scientific and technical photography.
The "Kiev" camera is manufactured in two models.
"Kiev-4" with photoelectric exposure meter (Fig 2) and
"Kiev-4A" without exposure meter (Fig. 1).
|Size of negative picture:
24X36 mm. 36 pictures are ensured when camera is loaded with
a 1.6 m film.
Shutter: split type with hinged metal curtains.
Shutter speeds: manual - "B" ("long" and "short" periods)
and automatic - 1/2; 1/5; 1/10; 1/25; 1/50; 1/125; 1/250;
The shutter winding mechanism is interlocked with the film
winder thus ensuring double exposure prevention.
Coated lens: "Юпитер-8М" ("Jupiter")
f = 5 cm; relative aperture: 1 : 2.
Lens is focused by an optical rangefinder (from 0.9 m to
Sighting: with the aid of an optical view finder.
The camera is fitted with single-window coupled
The camera is provided with a self-timer. The self-timer
running time, before the shutter snaps: from 9 to 15 sec for
The back of the camera is removable.
The "Kiev-4A" is provided with a film reminder.
The "Kiev-4" model has a small, extra-sensitive
photoelectric exposure meter which operates at brightness
from 8 to 31800 nit.
Range of determined exposures: from 8 to 1/1250 sec-
Light flux acceptance angle: 65-70°.
|Fig. 3. Camera design:
1- body; 2 - depth-of-field scale; 3 - distance scale; 4 -
diaphragm ring; 5 - lens; 6 - lens fixing spring; 7 -
self-timer lever; 8 - self-timer button; 9 - range finder
window; 10 - we-ring for neck strap; 11 - shutter speed
scale; 12 - shutter winding knob; 13 - release button;
14-picture counter; 15 - lever for fixing lens in the
position "infinity"; 16 - lens focusing wheel; 17 - shoe for
various attachments; 18 - view-finder-rangefinder window; 19
- film reminder: 20 - film re-. winding knob; 21 -
Fig. 4. Camera
1 - tripod bush; 2 - shutter mechanism disengaging
button; 3 - latch-swivel of camera back
Overall dimensions, mm
"Kiev-4" model: 150X90X74
"Kiev-4A" model: 150X83X74
Weight (including the
'Kiev-4A" model: 0.965
Fig. 5. Camera rear
1- viewfinder and rangefinder eyepiece;
2 - backpiece
CAMERA IN LOADING
THE CAMERA FOR LOADING
Opening locks on camera back
|Free the camera by
unbuttoning the cases and unwinding the screw out of the
tripod hole that is found at the bottom of the case.
Lift the two latch-swivels 3 (Fig. 4) and turn them half-way
in the direction shown in Fig. 6.
Shift camera backpiece 2 (Fig. 5) slightly downwards and
remove it. Here camera should be held with its upper cover
downwards so as to prevent the magazine and take-spool from
falling out (Fig. 7).
Removing camera backpiece
ASSEMBLING THE MAGAZINE
|The magazine consists of
two cylinders, one running into the other, and a spool.
The magazine should be loaded in complete darkness.
Before loading the magazine is opened by pressing the
projecting button found at the bottom of the magazine.
Film loading diagram
|Then revolve the inner
cylinder clockwise until the cylinder slits coincide.
Now the inner cylinder can be taken out from the outer
and the spool can be removed from the inner cylinder
The end of the film should be properly cut and firmly
fixed in the spool slits as shown in Fig. 8. Holding the
film by its edges, so as not to touch the emulsion,
tightly wind it by revolving the spool counterclockwise.
Wind the film with the emulsion side inward.
If the film is properly wound it will not be protruding
out of spool flanges.
Fig. 9. Opening magazine
Fig. 10. Placing filmspool into inner cylinder
Fig. 11. Closing magazine
|When the film is
wound, the loosely wound turns should not be tightened
as this may lead to damaging the film emulsion. Then the
spool with its film Is set into the inner cylinder, its
"head" being forward and the outer cylinder is placed
over it and pushed as far as it will go (Fig. 10). Leave
about 5 cm of the film end outside. The inner cylinder
is then turned half-way counterclockwise until it locks
(Fig. 11). In this position the inscription "Закрыть"
("Closed") will appear in the middle of the slit.
LOADING THE CAMERA
|The camera can be loaded
in daylight (preferably in a badly-lighted place). The
following procedure should be observed when loading the
1. Fasten the end of the film in the take-up spool (Fig. 8).
2. Place the magazine in the left-hand recess and the
take-up spool in the right-hand recess of the camera body so
that the film perforations engage the sprocket teeth that
will carry the film (Fig. 12).
When the film magazine is placed in the camera, it should
accurately fit into the magazine slot, for if the magazine
does not properly "sit" it may become damaged.
The emulsion side of the film should face the lens.
ordinary "Kiev" camera magazine can be used as a take-up
spool thus eliminating the need for rewinding the film.
3. Close the camera (Fig. 14) by putting its back against
the body and by passing its edges into the body slots. Push
the back of the camera upwards as far as it will go, holding
the film edge with the left-hand thumb, turn the
latch-swivels around and down. As soon as the lock is turned
the film magazine opens.
in the process of camera loading the film end becomes
exposed. In order to move the non-exposed film towards the
picture aperture wind and release the shutter twice by
pressing the release button each time.
If the camera is properly loaded then while turning the
winding knob the rewind knob will also turn.
Fig. 12. Camera loaded with magazine and spool
Fig. 13. Camera loaded with two magazines
Fig. 14. Closing camera back
Setting counter at "0"
Shutter speed setting
|If film is loosely wound
on the magazine spool the rewind knob will remain stationary
when first pictures are shot.
4. Set "0" mark of the picture counter against the index on
the spool by rotating the protruded part of the disk as
shown in Fig. 15.
5. Set the film reminder index 19 by turning the button of
scale so as to reveal the necessary film speed index in
rewinding head 20 (Fig. 3). Index 19 is marked with numbers
that correspond to black-and-white film speed in
ГОСТ (USSR State Standard) units and
with symbols for color film.
The camera can also be loaded with a film wound about an
ordinary spool covered with a black blanket (when the
magazine is not used).
In this case the loading procedure is as follows:
the end of the leader (not the film) is fixed in the take-up
spool and picture counter disk is set at division 27 (not
"0") against which a red dot is found. To perform film
feeding it is necessary to take nine "blank'' pictures until
the "0" mark is set against the counter index.
|The process of
photographing consists of the following operations: setting
the shutter; timing the exposure; focusing the lens;
sighting; releasing the shutter.
The shutter is set by turning the winding knob clockwise as
far as it will go.
Exposure time (Fig. 16) is set by lifting and turning the
winding knob until the black dot, marked on it, coincides
with the required shutter speed. Lower the winding knob in
such a way as to enable it to fix itself in a proper
When the shutter is
set, resetting the time exposure from shorter to longer
exposures requires more effort than when resetting its
speeds in the opposite direction.
It is recommended
|when exposure times
have to be reset from longer to shorter times (for example:
from 1/50 to 1/125 sec) turn the winding knob in such a way
that the black dot is found a little further than the actual
time to be set and then with a clockwise turn of the knob to
set and lower the head;
to set the exposure time after winding the shutter.
The diaphragm (Fig. 17) is set by turning ring 4 (Fig. 3)
which is fixed when the index coincides with any chosen
Focusing (Fig. 18) and setting the lens with the rangefinder
is accomplished by turning wheel 16 (Fig. 3).
The wheel can be turned only after pressing lever /5 which
fixes the lens at "infinity" position.
17. Diaphragming of lens
|Through the eyepiece of
the rangefinder-viewfinder one sees in the middle of viewing
field more light rectangle in which the viewed object has a
Focusing with the aid of rangefinder consists in getting the
two images to coincide (Fig. 19).
It is recommended to make the two images coincide in the
centre of the smaller rectangle.
If the distance to the photographed object is known,
focusing may be carried out with the aid of the distance
scale by turning wheel 16 (Fig. 3) until the required value
on distance scale 3 coincides with the scale dot-index.
19. Matching images
|The depth of field is
determined by the distance scale depending on the distance
to the object and selected diaphragm value.
pictures without the aid of the rangefinder is advisable
only when small lens aperture is used so that any errors in
determining the distance by eye are compensated by the lens
Setting lens at 2.5 m
Setting lens at 4 m
Example. If the f= 5 cm
lens is focused at 4 m on a line with the film all the
objects within 2.5-10 m (Fig. 20, 21) will have sharp images
when diaphragm is set at 8.
distances to photographed objects should be counted from the
plane of the film loaded in the camera.
Sighting is accomplished by looking through the eyepiece of
the range and view finder during focusing.
The entire object to be photographed, seen through the
eyepiece will be pictured on the negative.
The shutter is released by (Fig. 22) smoothly' pressing
release button 13 (Fig. 3).
When photographing at exposures from 1/2 to 1/1250 sec, the
shutter operates (opens and shuts) automatically. When
photographing at the "B" exposure, the shutter remains open
as long as the release button is pressed.
In order to obtain a time exposure, the release button may
be fixed after being pressed by turning it counterclockwise
as far as it will go (Fig. 23). The shutter closes after the
finger is lifted from "the, button, the release button is
returned to its position, and the red dots coincide. When
photographing with exposures longer than 1/25 sec it is
recommended to use the tripod or horizontal support and wire
release in order to avoid "crabbing" the negative. The
shutter can be released automatically with the aid of the
automatic releaser. The automatic releaser is wound by
turning lever 7 (Fig. 3) up to the stop (Fig. 24). In order
to set the automatic releaser for action, button 8 (Fig. 3)
should be shifted in the direction shown by the arrow. The
automatic releaser running time before the shutter clicks is
from 9 to 15 sec.
Duration of the "B" exposure, with the automatic releaser
switched on, varies from 1 to 3 sec for various cameras (it
is recommended to determine it with a stop-watch before
using the camera).
Long exposure photographing
Winding automatic re-leaser lever
Exposure meter top view
UNLOADING THE CAMERA
|In order to remove the
exposed film frorn the camera it should first be rewound
into the magazine. For this purpose the lens should be
covered with the cap, the shutter mechanism disengaging
button should be pressed down and the rewinding knob should
be turned in the direction indicated by the arrow (Fig. 25).
Note. For "Kiev-4"
camera the film rewinding knob should first be put forward.
After rewinding the camera's back should be removed, the
magazine taken out and the end of the film released from the
Before closing the camera it is recommended to examine it
and, if necessary, to clean it with the aid of a brush or a
clean piece of cloth.
HOW TO USE THE EXPOSURE METER
|The "Kiev-4" (Fig. 1)
camera differs from the "Kiev-4A" (Fig. 2) in having a
photoelectric exposure meter located in the upper part of
The exposure meter is used to determine exposure times.
The photoelectric exposure meter consists of the following
units: photocell (located behind ribbed plate 1 (Fig. 27),
galvanometer with pointer 1 and scale 2 (Fig. 26),
calculator 3 (Fig. 27). The range of exposures is from 8 to
The calculator has the following scales: exposure scale
found on ring 5, film speed scale and diaphragm scale found
on disk 4.
To determine the exposure time it is necessary:
to set the value of the film speed against index
() on disk 3 by revolving disk 4.
If the camera is loaded with a film the speed of which is
not marked on the scale, for example 45 units
ГОСТ, then the central part of the
section disk, found between 32 and 65 units
ГОСТ marks, will be set against index
direct the camera towards the object to be photographed and
open the cover of the photocell by pressing the button (Fig.
set the galvanometer pointer at index I of galvanometer
scale 2 by turning ring 5 of exposure scale (Fig. 26);
determine the required exposure time by using the exposure
and diaphragm scales. The numbers in red on the exposure
scale represent seconds while the numbers in black represent
fractions of a second;
close the cover of photocell and turn the exposure scale
ring clockwise as far as it will go.
Opening photocell cover
|Example of how to
determine exposure times.
When camera is loaded with a film, the sensitivity of which
is equal to 32 units ГОСТ, scale
number 32 is set against index f on disk 3 revolving disk 4
The galvanometer pointer is then set at index 4 by turning
exposure scale ring 5. The exposure scale then takes a
position whereby its number 125 is under number 2 of the
That means that with the diaphragm being 2 the exposure time
should be set at 1/125 sec, with diaphragm 4 exposure time
is at 1/25 sec, and so on or, vice versa, the diaphragm is
determined by the chosen exposure.
Besides index + , numbers 2 and 4 are also found on
galvanometer scale 2. These numbers are the multiplicator
numbers which should be used when the galvanometer pointer
does not reach index * after exposure scale has been fully
turned counter-clockwise to a stop. In this case the
obtained exposure time should be multiplied by the number
against which the galvanometer pointer sets.
For example, the film speed is equal to 32 units
ГОСТ and the galvanometer pointer has
come to the line with number 2 after having turned the
exposure ring of the calculator counterclockwise up to a
stop. Under diaphragm number 8 is the 1/2 sec exposure mark.
We obtain the required exposure time of 1 sec, by
multiplying 1/2 sec by 2.
The photoelectric exposure meter is a complex precision
instrument and requires special care when used.
The exposure meter should not be subjected to jolts and
The photocell cover should be opened only when determining
the exposure time and the exposure meter should never be
directed straight at the sun with its cover open.
Connecting of flash lamps
PHOTOGRAPHING WITH FLASHLIGHT
|The "Kiev-4" and the
"Kiev-4A" are provided with synchronous contacts for
connecting single action and pulse type multiple-action
flash lamps with the plug matching the camera socket (Fig.
Photographing with multiple action flash lamps should be
carried out with 1/25 sec and longer exposures, for at these
speeds the shutter completely opens the frame window.
When photographing with single action flashbulbs the shutter
speed of 1/10 sec is most advisable.
Single action flashbulbs may -be used when light intensity
does not cause any appearance of general fog on film
(without the flash).
When the shutter is not in "ready" position, the contacts
of the camera electric circuit are closed, but as soon as it
is wound the contacts open. Therefore, when operating with
flash lamps, the shutter should be wound immediately after
taking a picture.
The flash lamps should be connected or disconnected and new
lamps should be fitted (when using single action bulbs) only
when the shutter is in "ready" position.
Photographing with flash lamps should be carried out in
accordance with the instructions supplied with the flash
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OPERATING WITH INTERCHANGEABLE LENSES
|The following additional
lenses are manufactured for the "Kiev" cameras.
| "Jrupiter - 11"
"Jrupiter - 9"
"Jrupiter - 12"
"Jrupiter - 3"
1 : 4
1 : 2
1 : 2.8
1 : 1.5
fast to light
|The interchangeable lenses
are fitted in the camera barrel in place of the standard
The basic operating lens "Jupiter-8M" as well as the
interchangeable lens "Jupiter-3" are fitted on the bayonets
of focusing mechanism inner ring, whereas all other lenses
are fitted on the bayonets of the outer stationary ring, on
which the depth-of-field scale is marked.
In order to remove the "Jupiter-8M" or the "Jupiter-3" lens
it is necessary to press the spring which fastens the lens,
making it drop below the red lug, and to remove the lens in
the direction of the optical axis by turning it clockwise
until the red marks on the lens and the camera's front cover
coincide (Fig. 29).
The "Jupiter-8M" and "Jupiter-3" lenses are fitted in the
Note. When a lens is fitted or removed, the camera and the
lens distance scales should first be set in the .=0
The "Jupiter-11", "Jupiter-9" and "Jupiter-12" lenses are
provided with their own distance, depth-of-field and
Before fitting the "Jupiter-9", "Jupiter-11" or "Jupiter-12"
interchangeable lenses to the camera it is necessary to take
off the rear cap of the lens, then place it on the bayonet
ring of the barrel (Fig. 31) setting the red dot on the lens
ring against the red dot on the camera front cover and turn
the lens counterclockwise until it locks.
The lens is correctly fitted if disk 16 (Fig. 3) rotates
when the lens distance ring is turned. The additional lenses
are removed in the reverse order.
When photographing with the interchangeable lenses (Fig. 31)
the sighting should be carried out with the aid of a
multi-purpose or special viewfinder, which is mounted on
frame 17 (see Fig. 3). Focusing is accomplished with the aid
of a camera rangefinder but in order to reduce the load on
the camera mechanism, the lens distance ring should be
turned instead of disk 16.
Setting up f= 13.5 cm lens
Photographing with f= 13.5 cm lens
The camera should be kept in the leather case in a dry place
and protected from dust and moisture.
The camera should be protected from jerks or impacts
(especially "Kiev-4") as this may damage the mechanism
particularly the exposure meter.
When the camera is used at temperatures below- 10° Ñ care
should be taken not to have it long in the open air; keep it
warm under the coat and take it out only when taking
The lens should be protected from dirt so that the necessity
of cleaning them should not arise often, as during the
cleaning the antireflection coating on the lenses may be
When brought into a warm room from the cold do not open the
camera immediately to prevent it from becoming misty. It
should be left in the carrying case for some time in order
to adapt itself to the warmer temperature.
No extra force should be applied in handling the camera. In
case defects or damage are discovered, the camera should be
adjusted or repaired by skilled specialists only.