in contrast to conventional to-dimensional photography makes
it possible to obtain pictures which give correct
three-dimensional perception of objects mutual arrangement.
The stereoscopic set incorporates a camera, stereo viewer,
and printing frame.
Stereoscopic camera allows to obtain three-dimensional
pictures. Each stereoscopic picture consists of a pair of
photographic images which inconsiderably differ from each
other. When these photographic images are viewed through the
stereo viewer they merge into a single three-dimensional
The printing frame is designed for contact printing of
6x13cm stereoscopic pictures and 6x6cm conventional pictures.
|The speed lenses and
convenient focusing device ensure superior quality of
The viewfinder of a reversal type gives a sufficiently large
image and ensures quick framing.
The between-the-lens shutters provided for in the camera
allow to choose speeds over a wide range. The camera
comprises a self-timer with 7-8 sec. delay and a flash bulb
synchronizer ensuring automatic flash at the moment of the
shutter full opening.
Main Components and
Fig. 1 - Main Camera Components
1 - taking lenses
2 - shutter adjustment ring guide
3 - threaded socket for cable release
4 - release lever
5 - side walls
6 - cocking lever
7 - camera body
8 - take up spool fastening knob
9 - viewfinder front frame
10 - nameplate
11 - lighthood walls
12 - viewfinder lens
13 - film rewinding knob
14 - flash bulb sync contact
15 - aperture adjusting lever
16 - selftimer lever
The camera body and
hinged side walls are made of plastics. A tripod fastening
nut is provided at the camera bottom.
The taking lenses
are 75mm f/4.5 coated three-element anastigmats.
The optic viewfinder
incorporates the viewfinder proper and is a ground
glass representing a small circle in the middle of the field
lens; a hinged magnifier is mounted above this circle. The
viewfinder is provided with a metal lighthood which opens
when lifting the top cover. Sequence of operations, when
closing the viewfinder, is as follows: first close the
magnifier, then the hood side walls, then the rear panel
with a square window, and, at last, the hood front panel
until it catches.
The viewing lens
has an aperture ratio 1:2.8 which is considerably brighter
than that of the taking lenses and, therefore, the viewing
lens is more suitable when focusing for sharp image.
Image focusing on the ground circle and on the film takes
place simultaneously, as the viewing lens and both front
taking lenses are coupled through knurled mounts. The
shortest distance for focusing is 1.3m. Taking pictures at
closer distances can be accomplished when employing
Focusing is to be made on the ground glass circle center of
the optical viewfinder lens. The image on the circle is
viewed through the magnifier mounted on the hood front panel
of the viewfinder with the eye kept closely to the
magnifier. Focusing is most conveniently accomplished by
slowly rotating the right lens knurled ring until the image
in the circle center is the sharpest.
The magnifier is
fixed from inside of the optical viewfinder cover. The
magnifier is set to working position by pulling it from the
hood panel and lifting it to the erect position.
The frame viewfinder
is formed by the front frame and the lighthood rear
panel. To make it ready for use it is necessary to press-in
the cover with the name plate until it catches. To close the
viewfinder, the lighthood rear panel should be slightly
When focusing, the camera should be held at the eye level
and the object should be looked at through a square window
in the rear panel, keeping the camera at a distance at which
the frame edges coincicde with those of the square opening
in the front panel. In this case the borders of the
field-of-view will be the borders of the shot.
The distance scale
is engraved on the viewing lens mount. The scale divisions
(in meters) indicate settings for various lens-to-object
shutters (coupled) provide automatic exposures of
1/100, 1/50, 1/10 sec. and B setting permitting to expose
for any length of time. The shutter speeds are selected by
turning the exposure setting ring guide of the right shutter
until the index line on the ring edge coincides with the
point indicating the desirable speed (intermediate positions
of the index line do not correspont to mean values of
Prior to exposing, the shutter should be cocked by turning
the right shutter cocking lever downwards as far as it goes.
The shutter release should be effected by smoothly
depressing the release lever or cable release for which a
threaded socket is provided. When set at "B" the shutter
remains open as long as the release lever is being
provided inside the right shutter is cocked by a special
lever. To release the self-timer, proceed as follows: set
the required shutter speed, cock the shutter, and the
self-timer, then depress the shutter release. In 7-12 sec.
delay the shutter release operates and the picture is taken.
Depth-of-Field, at aperture
||18.0 - ~
||11.0 - ~
||8.5 - ~
||6.0 - ~
||4.5 - ~
||3.3 - ~
||7.0 - 20.0
||6.0 - 30.0
||5.0 - ~
||4.0 - ~
||3.3 - ~
||2.5 - ~
||3.9 - 7.0
||3.7 - 9.0
||3.4 - 12.0
||2.9 - 17.0
||2.5 - ~
||2.0 - ~
||2.8 - 3.7
||2.6 - 3.9
||2.3 - 4.5
||2.2 - 6.0
||1.8 - 11.0
||1.7 - 30.0
||2.2 - 2.9
||2.1 - 3.1
||1.9 - 3.5
||1.8 - 4.0
||1.6 - 5.0
||1.4 - 8.0
||1.7 - 2.6
||1.6 - 2.8
||1.4 - 3.5
||1.2 - 4.0
||1.3 - 1.8
||1.2 - 2.0
||1.2 - 2.2
||1.0 - 2.8
||1.1 - 1.6
||1.1 - 1.7
||1.0 - 1.9
||0.9 - 2.2
The diapragms are
placed inside the lens. They are employed to control the
aperture. The change of the aperture setting is effected by
turning the aperture control lever.
The lenses are stopped down when it is necessary to increase
the depth-of-field or when the volume of light is too large
for a selected shutter speed.
The diaphragm is f-numbered so that its closing or opening
by one stop will require twice as much or twice as less the
amount of light reaching the film. At f/5.6, then the
exposure time should be twice as less as the exposure time
required for taking pictures at f/8. When the exposure time
for f/5.6 is known, but lighting conditions require f/16,
then the exposure time is to be increased eight times,
because the diaphragm has been closed by three stops.
Depth-of-field valuse at various f-numbers and distance
settings are given in the table.
Red dots are provided on the diaphragm scale between figures
"8" and "11" and on the distance scale between figures "10"
and "5". When setting the diaphragm against these dots, the
image of objects arranged at a distance from 3m to infinity
will be quite sharp on the negative.
The flash bulb
contact is intended to synchronize a flash of the bulb with
a moment of the shutter full opening.
When employing single-flash bulbs the shutter should be set
for a speed of 1/10 sec. or "B", when employing multi-flash
bulbs the shutter may be set for any speed. The flash bulb
synchronizer operates automatically just after the shutter
has been released.
Loading the Camera
Fig. 2 - Loading the Camera
1 - magnifier
2 - frame viewfinder back window
3 - viewfinder hood lock
4 - lock of camera side walls
5 - pressure plate
6 - take-up spool
7 - light protective plate
8 - viewing window
9 - viewing window cover knob
1. Shift the
lock strap of side walls in the direction of the arrow as
far as it goes; first open the side wall which bears a strap
and then the other wall.
2. Brake the seal of the film roll; insert the end fo the film protective
paper into the slit of the take-up spool and fold it; then
by turning the film rewinding knob, wind up 1-2 layers of
the paper, the take-up spool being held to prevent the film
3. Pull up the fastening knob of the take-up spool and place the spool
with the film into the socket making sure that the spool is
set into the centre of the socket, then put the fastening
knob to the initial position. Make sure that the paper
tension is adequate, then first shut the side wall which
bears the strap, then replace the other side wall and shift
the strap back to the stop.
4. Turn the window cover knob clockwise and rotate slowly the film
advance knob until the protective paper worning marks
followed by a figure "1" appear in the red window. Shut the
window cover and the camera is ready for use.
1. Refer to
tables or an exposure meter to determine an exposure, taking
into account film sensitivity, aperture selected, etc,. and
set the shutter.
2. Set the aperture.
3. Open the viewfinder front panel.
4. Adjust the magnifier to working position.
5. Focus lenses for image sharpness.
6. Frame the shot by viewing it through the viewfinder.
7. Cock the shutters.
8. Release the shutters depressing the release lever or cable release.
9. Just after exposure, advance the film (lest you should forget). With
this purpose, turn the window cover knob and smoothly rotate
the film advance knob until the next odd numeral appears in
the peep-window, then shut the window cover.
The camera may also serve for taking non-stereoscopic
conventional pictures. In this case one of the lenses should
be tightly closed by a cap. To achieve convenience in
counting shots it is recommended to take pictures using the
left lens. Count the shots beginning from figure "1".
Unloading the Camera
|Having taken six
stereoscopic or twelve conventional pictures, advance the
film protective paper to the end. It may happen that when
the film advance has almost come to the end, the knob
rotation would be detained by the paper jammed in the
take-up spool slit; this, however, will not prevent
unloading the camera in the daylight.
To unload the camera, proceed as follows:
1. Shift the lock strap of the side walls in the direction of the arrow
as far as it goes and open the side walls of the camera.
2. Pull-up and slightly turn the film rewinding knob.
3. Take out the spool with the film retaining its tension, seal it up and
safely store it until developed.
4. Replace the take-up spool into its socket so that its upper face end
iwth a notch would be set against the film advance knob.
5. Shut the camera side walls and shift the lock strap to the initial
Unloading the Camera
3 - Printing Frame
1 - mobile framework for
change of a glass
2 - clamping spring for closing a window
3 - the bases of a framework
4 - flat springs for fastening photographic paper
5 - spring
6 - clamping cover
7 - ledges fixing a film
8 - glass
|The printing frame is
designed for making from stereoscopic negative either a pair
of prints simultaneously or each print separately.
At simultaneous printing each stereoscopic pair should be
cut; separate printing a stereoscopic pair of prints with
correct arrangement of images is obtained without cutting.
For conventional examination the prints should be mounted at
the same level on a cardboard of sixe 62x132 mm.
Simultaneous printing of the stereo pair is done as follows:
1. Cut 6x13 cm sheets of paper
2. Take off the removable cover
3. Turn the clamping spring and take out the cover.
4. Put the film on the glass with its emulsion side up.
5. Place the paper under the cover flat springs
6. Put the cover on the negative.
7. Turn the printing frame over, adjust the edges of the both negatives
relative to the frames and turning the clamping spring, fix
8. Expose both negatives.
To make a stereoscopic pair of prints separately, proceed as
1. Cut 6x13 cm sheets of paper.
2. Mark each negative, from which the stereoscopic pair is composed, with
figures "1" and "2", put the figures in the intervals
between the negatives (mark the negatives starting from the
3. Put on the removable cover having closed the right-hand frame.
4. Turn the clamping spring and take out the cover.
5. Put the film on the glass with its emulsion up, so that the left frame
would accomodate the negative marked with figure "2" (the
film roll should be placed from the right side of the
6. Put the cover on the negative having laid the paper under the flat
springs of the cover.
7. Turn the frame cover, adjust the negative edges relative to the frame
and, having set the clamping spring, fit the cover.
8. Expose the left-hand negative.
9. Shift the removable cover having closed the left-hand frame.
10. Release the clamping spring and shift the film so that the negative
marked with figure "1" would face the right-hand frame; see
that the edges of the negative coincide with those of the
frame, and fix the cover.
11. Expose the right-hand negative.
Note: The left
and right negatives are to exposed for equal length of time.
3 - Stereo Viewer
1 - stereoscopic
2 - screws for fastening stereoscopic spectacles
3 - directing
4 - cursor
5 - block
6 - support
7 - the lock
8 - frame
|The stereo viewer is
designed for viewing stereoscopic pictures on a transparent
and non-transparent base. For viewing stereoscopic pictures
on the transparent base provision is made in the stereo
viewer frame for two square openings.
The stereo viewer is put into the case in disassembled
state. To assemble it, observe the following sequence of
1. Turn the block to the stop so that the guides are at an angle to the
2. Fix the support frame on the cursor so that the pins with elastic
washers come through the holes of the support frame.
3. Screw up the stereoscopic spectacles to the guides using a plank as a
To dismantle the stereo viewer the same operation is
repeated in reversed order.
1. To gain a stereoscopic effect, proceed as follows:
2. Place a stereoscopic picture into the frame.
Adjust the stereoscope according to your eyes by slowly
moving the frame along the guides until the best sharpness
is achieved, both pictures merging into a single
|The stereo set pairs
should be handled with care.
Keep the taking lenses clean, otherwise the picture quality
may get worse.
Having breathed on the lens surface, wipe the taking lenses,
stereo viewer lenses and the frame glass only from outside
using a clean linen rag or cotton.
Do not unscrew the
mounts and do not take the lenses apart.